研究人员发现，有机酸和葡萄糖的组合引发了与玉米病原体玉米黑粉菌（Ustilago maydis）的活体营养型后期阶段有关的表型。这些表型包括通常只在活体营养型发育过程中观察到的一组效应子的表达，以及与植物肿瘤中孢子形成有关的黑色素。U. maydis和其他半活体营养型真菌也对碳源的组合作出反应，并增强增殖。因此，对来自宿主的营养物质组合的反应可能是真菌活体营养的一个保守特征。
Title: Organic acids and glucose prime late-stage fungal biotrophy in maize
Author: Matthias Kretschmer, Djihane Damoo, Sherry Sun, Christopher W. J. Lee, Daniel Croll, Harry Brumer, James Kronstad
Abstract: Many plant-associated fungi are obligate biotrophs that depend on living hosts to proliferate. However, little is known about the molecular basis of the biotrophic lifestyle, despite the impact of fungi on the environment and food security. In this work, we show that combinations of organic acids and glucose trigger phenotypes that are associated with the late stage of biotrophy for the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. These phenotypes include the expression of a set of effectors normally observed only during biotrophic development, as well as the formation of melanin associated with sporulation in plant tumors. U. maydis and other hemibiotrophic fungi also respond to a combination of carbon sources with enhanced proliferation. Thus, the response to combinations of nutrients from the host may be a conserved feature of fungal biotrophy.