单个神经元类似乘法的非线性信息处理的生物物理学基础
2022-02-28   阅读:703   来源:自然

德国马克斯普朗克研究所Alexander Borst和Lukas N. Groschner共同合作取得重要进展。他们研究发现了单个神经元类似乘法的非线性信息处理的生物物理学基础。该研究于2022年2月23日在线发表于国际一流学术期刊《自然》杂志上。

在这里,研究人员在黑腹果蝇的ON运动视觉电路中探索了这个问题,他们在体内记录了方向选择型T4神经元及其柱状输入元件对视觉和药理刺激的膜电位。他们的电生理测量和基于电导的模拟为T4树突上两种不同类型的突触之间的被动超线性相互作用提供了证据。他们表明,这种类似乘法的非线性产生于胆碱能兴奋和谷氨酸能抑制释放的重合。后者取决于T4神经元中谷氨酸门控氯离子通道GluClα的表达,它使细胞的方向性调谐更加清晰,并塑造了动物的视运动行为。长期以来,分流抑制性和兴奋性突触的互作对一直被假定为乘法的模拟近似物,它是运动检测、声音定位和感觉运动控制理论的不可或缺的组成部分。

据介绍,由单个神经细胞执行的非线性、类似乘法的运作方式极大地增强了神经系统的计算能力,但我们对其生物物理实现的理解却很有限。

附:英文原文

Title: A biophysical account of multiplication by a single neuron

Author: Groschner, Lukas N., Malis, Jonatan G., Zuidinga, Birte, Borst, Alexander

Issue&Volume: 2022-02-23

Abstract: Nonlinear, multiplication-like operations carried out by individual nerve cells greatly enhance the computational power of a neural system1,2,3, but our understanding of their biophysical implementation is scant. Here we pursue this problem in the Drosophila melanogaster ON motion vision circuit4,5, in which we record the membrane potentials of direction-selective T4 neurons and of their columnar input elements6,7 in response to visual and pharmacological stimuli in vivo. Our electrophysiological measurements and conductance-based simulations provide evidence for a passive supralinear interaction between two distinct types of synapse on T4 dendrites. We show that this multiplication-like nonlinearity arises from the coincidence of cholinergic excitation and release from glutamatergic inhibition. The latter depends on the expression of the glutamate-gated chloride channel GluClα8,9 in T4 neurons, which sharpens the directional tuning of the cells and shapes the optomotor behaviour of the animals. Interacting pairs of shunting inhibitory and excitatory synapses have long been postulated as an analogue approximation of a multiplication, which is integral to theories of motion detection10,11, sound localization12 and sensorimotor control13.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04428-3

编辑:小柯机器人

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