鸵鸟蛋壳珠揭示非洲5万年前的社会网络
2021-12-25   阅读:592   来源:自然

德国马克斯·普朗克人类历史科学研究所Jennifer M. Miller和Yiming V. Wang合作揭示非洲5万年前的社会网络。该项研究成果于2021年12月20日在线发表在《自然》杂志上。

研究人员比较了非洲东部和南部的鸵鸟蛋壳珠的变化,以探索过去5万年的人口动态。研究人员发现,鸵鸟蛋壳珠技术可能起源于非洲东部,并通过一个区域网络向南传播,约在50-33千年前(ka)。这种联系大约在33 ka时中断,种群保持隔离,直到2 ka后牧民进入南部非洲。这种断裂的时间大体上与热带间汇聚区的南移相吻合,后者造成赞比西河流域(连接非洲东部和南部的地区)的周期性洪水。这表明,气候在塑造人类社会接触方面发挥了一些影响。这项研究意味着区域分化比遗传分析预测的要晚,确定了一个大约3000公里的风格联系,并对古代互动的社会层面提供了重要的新见解。
 
据介绍,人类是在非洲各地半连接的人群中演化而来的;了解这些群体何时以及如何连接,对于解释人类今天的生物和文化多样性至关重要。遗传分析显示,东部和南部非洲的血统在更新世的某个时候,即大约350-700 ka发生了分化;然而,人们对这些互动的确切时间、这些交流的文化背景或推动其分离的机制知之甚少。
 
附:英文原文
 
Title: Ostrich eggshell beads reveal 50,000-year-old social network in Africa

Author: Miller, Jennifer M., Wang, Yiming V.

Issue&Volume: 2021-12-20

Abstract: Humans evolved in a patchwork of semi-connected populations across Africa1,2; understanding when and how these groups connected is critical to interpreting our present-day biological and cultural diversity. Genetic analyses reveal that eastern and southern African lineages diverged sometime in the Pleistocene epoch, approximately 350–70 thousand years ago (ka)3,4; however, little is known about the exact timing of these interactions, the cultural context of these exchanges or the mechanisms that drove their separation. Here we compare ostrich eggshell bead variations between eastern and southern Africa to explore population dynamics over the past 50,000 years. We found that ostrich eggshell bead technology probably originated in eastern Africa and spread southward approximately 50–33 ka via a regional network. This connection breaks down approximately 33 ka, with populations remaining isolated until herders entered southern Africa after 2 ka. The timing of this disconnection broadly corresponds with the southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, which caused periodic flooding of the Zambezi River catchment (an area that connects eastern and southern Africa). This suggests that climate exerted some influence in shaping human social contact. Our study implies a later regional divergence than predicted by genetic analyses, identifies an approximately 3,000-kilometre stylistic connection and offers important new insights into the social dimension of ancient interactions.

DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04227-2

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